Ibni ‘Abidin wrote in Radd-ul mukhtar:
It is sunnat-i muakkada  to use a miswak when performing an ablution. A hadith-i sharif  declares: “The salat which is performed after using a miswak is seventy-fold superior to the salat without a miswak. “ A miswak must be straight, as wide as the second small finger, and a span long. The miswak is derived from a branch of the erak (peelo) tree growing in Arabia. [Shaving it about two centimetres from the straight end, you keep this part in water for a couple of hours. When you crush it, it will open like a brush. ] When the erak tree cannot be found, a miswak can be made from an olive branch. You should not make it from a pomegranate branch. If an erak or olive tree cannot be found or if one does not have teeth, the sunnat  must be carried out with one’s fingers. The miswak has more than thirty advantages, which are written in Tahtawi’s Hashiyatu Maraq al-falah. Firstly, it causes one to die with iman  in one’s last breath. It is makruh  for men to chew gum without any ‘udhr (strong necessity), even when they are not fasting. Women must use chewing gum when they are not fasting instead of a miswak by intending to do the sunnat.
 Sunnat-i muakkada / Sunnat-i huda: Emphatic, practised regularly by our blessed Prophet. They are the shi’âr (symptoms) of the Islamic religion. [That is, they are peculiar to Islam; they do not exist in other religions.] Sunnat-i huda are like i’tikaf in a mosque, calling the azan or iqamat, and performing salat in jama’at. They are the characteristic traits of Islam, properties peculiar to this Ummat. [It is written in Ibni Abidin, at the end of the last volume that circumcision of children is also a sunnat of this kind.] The rawatib, that is, the muakkad sunnats of three of the fard five daily prayers are of this kind, too.
 hadith (sharif): i) a saying of the Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam).; al-Hadith ash-sharif: all the hadiths as a whole; ii) ‘ilm al-hadith; iii) Books of the hadith ash-sharif. iv) Al-hadith al-qudsi, as-sahih, al-hasan: kinds of hadiths (for which, see Endless Bliss, II).
 sunnat: i) act, thing that was, though not commanded by Allahu ta’ala, done and liked by the Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) as an ‘ibada (there is thawab if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it causes sin if continually omitted and disbelief if disliked; the Sunna; i) (with fard) all the sunnas as a whole; ii) (with the Book or Qur’an al-karim) the Hadith ash-sharif; iii) (alone) fiqh, Islam.
 iman: faith, belief, beliefs of Islam; kalam, i’tiqad.
 makruh: (act, thing) improper, disliked and abstained by the Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam); makruh tahrima: prohibited with much stress.